智利矿难营救胜利的关键在于民主制

(刊登于2011年香港【争鸣】杂志)

智利矿难营救的空前成功看似偶然,实则必然,国际上现在对其成功的原因作出了多种探讨、推测,但主要限于技术层面,不够全面、深刻,这无助于当今世界仍视矿难营救为难事,特别是我国乃世界矿难高发国,且营救率远远不尽人意,是值得深思、借鉴的。
如果说,技术只是客观条件,那么,制度才是主观与客观因素的统一;如果说,技术也得靠人去组织、实施,那么,人为的制度则是制约或促进人创造技术、运用技术、发挥技术或化无技术为高超能耐的关键。客观、深入解剖智利矿难营救的成功,就发现,是民主制这人为制度创造了人间奇迹。
首先,民主制度确保以人为本,并且是以凡人为本,成为官民之间、举国上下无需争辩的自然行为。民主制的基本规则是少数服从多数,权力的大小主要不在于官阶职务的高低,而在于人数的多寡,这就是自然产生两个结果:任何人的生命都是宝贵的,因为他(她)都是权力的主体,甚至越是平民,生命还越宝贵,因为,社会上始终是平民多于官员、贫民多于富人,因而,享有同等权力的平民无需自暴自弃,而总能充满自信与希望;任何官员都必然尊敬人民,甚至越是对待平民、贫民,越是体贴、尊重,因为,他们虽然平凡,却有非凡的力量,虽然贫穷,却拥有多数的权力,是决定官员特别是最高官员命运的上帝。因而,智利总统一听到矿难消息,就毅然中断在外国的重要访问而返回本国,直奔矿难地。这丝毫不是作秀,而是民主制实实在在的力量或诱惑:挽救了33名平民的生命,就可能增得全民33%的民心及其选票。彼时彼刻,没有任何“是国事重要还是矿难救助重要?是先派总理或部长还是总统先就奔一线?”等争辩。因为民主制的普及早已形成了全社会的共识或标准:人民大于国家,国家是为人民服务的;民情优于国事,人的生命,特别是普通人的生命高于一切!何况,平民往往缺乏力量自救,缺乏资本或职权请求救济,那么,政府——人民的代理人就责无旁贷、义不容辞。这就为营救矿难赢得了第一时间与最大的国家或人民的力量。
二、民主制是最科学的制度。这不仅是因多大于少是自然规律,是人人包括动物都应该也自然遵循的常识,更在于允许或号召全民或 尽量多数人民的参与,才能迸发最科学的智慧,集思广益、优中选优是解难、发展的常态与规律,决策时可能谨慎慢些,但执行时必然快速顺利,确保效率与效益的同步。而且,在全民预先规则上的决策、特别是排除了当权者私心杂念、权钱交易的决策更加高效。民主制决非不讲效率或影响效率,就如智利总统断然改变国事访问而直奔矿难场,就是最有效率的决策,无论是执政党还是反对党、无论是官府还是民间、无论是本国还是他国都惊人的一致支持——越民主,人民就越讲道理,公道自在人心,真理往往有自然的明显标准,人民会自觉践行。因而,即使总统亲赴现场,他也没有因要展示自己的超人或天才就盲目指挥,而是搞群策群力;也没有因“家丑不可外传”、要维护国家形象等就严禁外国记者等到现场采访;更没有因要防范遇难者家属情绪激动、可能提出过高要求等而软禁家属、强行维持社会稳定;更没有任何因要考虑经济发展、保持GDP仍然增长而评估所谓政府营救的成本会大于对全体死难者的赔偿数额,而对家属们软硬兼施,达成“同意政府放弃救难”的死亡协议,并得强颜欢笑的表示“感谢政府、还是政府好”。因为,民主制社会深知:经济有价,但生命无价;正常的经济都得靠有生命的人去用心创造,失去了人或失去了人心,就不可能有正常的经济发展,除非是基于地大物博、得天独厚而出卖能源资源的卖血,或侵犯外国知识产权、专有技术“合法”盗窃的吸血,或者以迎合外国私人资本家低级气味、原始积累、牺牲环保等的国家特色来大量引进外资的输血等等短期暴富。对此,智利政府不仅各相关部门通力合作,不滥施权威或推卸责任,政府与民间也良性互动,每一个重要举措都充分征求民意特别是家属们的意见,而且,基于自然不分国界、世人共同此心而对外开放,凡属是为了救难的建议、施舍都纳谏如流,让每个平民或外国人、组织都能行使民主权力:知情、监督、乃至参与决策。因而,才得以一反常规,选择并实施了人类史上最高难度、但最安全有效的持久战。毕竟,这是一个深埋在七百米地下的矿难,是一个要尽量保证每一位矿难者都能从地狱中升天的举措。正是民主决策才成就了这人类历史上的空前壮举!
然而,无论是总统亲赴前线,还是现场的民主决策,都只是外因,关键还得同埋一处的33位矿工的内因起决定性作用。面对如此深达七百米的地狱式活埋,面对需要漫长至69天昼夜不分的等待,特别是开始未能与地面对话的几天,面临矿井内随时会并发煤与瓦斯突出或爆炸等死亡威胁,面对地下只有仅够众人维持生存二天的十罐金钱鱼罐头,面对日益稀薄的空气、不断紧张的窒息——按常情或逻辑,这与世隔绝的地狱中的33人拥挤在不足50平方米的避难所,危机四伏、内心绝望足以使他们如溺水者抢夺救命稻草,自私争夺、互相为敌、内讧撕拼,或精神崩溃、竭斯底地、自尽自虐,因为自己能多吃一块鱼,就多一份生还的希望,他人少活一口气,就减少对空气氧气的消失。也许等到外界好不容易打通营救通道,但拉出的却是遗体。那么,是什么内因能够产生如此大的力量战胜了死亡威胁,排除了重重险阻,克服了人性弱点,升华了人作为大自然最高级动物的本能,使人能从地狱中重生呢?
三、这一内因举措又是民主。据凤凰卫视中文台10月24日报道,刚遭矿难时,33位矿工挤在狭小的避难所里也焦急、躁动、绝望、混乱,也是为了“维持稳定”,55岁的工头并未以领导职务自居,来命令式管理众人,也无论资排辈,按年龄大小来耍权威,而是同大家一起实施民主制!就因为整个国家社会实行民主制,就因为民主制是放之四海而皆准的人间真理,才使即便是底层的工人,哪怕是深埋在地底下时都能自觉自然践行民主制。而且,他们超越国家的代议制间接民主而是实行直接的全面的民主制:一切少数服从多数,任何决定至少得有17人一致同意才有效。并全体分成11个小组,每组3人,按能分工,互相配合、互相监督,擅长说话的负责沟通,擅长探索的负责找水,擅长烹调的负责分配食品——最大限度节省人力、增强物力,避免重复,连说话都节省,以免口渴或多耗氧气。以致只能维持二天的食物硬是延续了众人多日的生理需要,不仅无一人死亡,也无一人身体过于虚弱,更无任何人为的争斗。相反,使平时彼此还不太了解、亲切的关系变得情同手足,但又非同性恋,而是生死与共,共度难关的患难兄弟。
四、为公的民主与牺牲私利的专制相结合成就着最佳双高效。本事故中到了最后升井时刻,身为领导的工头才一反民主制而“专制霸权”起来:全体工人先走,我自己垫后!把生的希望先让给别人,把死的威胁留给自己——这就是民主制下的专制独裁。这与靠法律强制矿山领导下井、但允许出现矿难时领导先升井,仍累爆假领导下井的现象无异是天渊之别。却吻合民主社会的以色列军队在遭遇敌众我寡、不得不撤退时连长的“霸道”名言:全体士兵撤退,军官们留下掩护!为公的民主与牺牲私利的专制相结合才创造了民主社会一个个人间奇迹,使人化险为夷、起死回生。十八世纪,来自英国的五月花号船只仅载几十名囚犯被流放至北美大陆,面对大陆数百倍、数万倍于己的印利安人的敌视、排斥,他们深知唯有实行内部的民主制才能凝成1+1>2的伟大力量,打败等级霸权下人压迫人、从而导致人越多反而力量相互抵消的专制部落。最后,北美大陆十三州的民主制成就了美国的超级神话。然而,美国在壮大成联邦时,却从各州的直接民主制退变成间接民主制,私营雇佣经济的发展也离经济民主制越来越远,个人自由膨胀冲淡了对直接、全面民主制的追求,以致现代美国危机重重,矛盾处处,发展速度也常常不及一些更多专制、更少个人自由的国家特别是创造了举世瞩目的沙漠奇迹的阿拉伯联合酋长国的迪拜。但,这决不能得出民主制不如迪拜的等级霸权专制,只能说明,美式民主制因只有间接民主,又无经济民主制,就远非真正的民主制而主要是个人自由制,欧美的缓慢或衰退并非民主制的局限或过错,而是其并不民主的桎梏;迪拜等的经济奇迹决非其等级霸权制度有任何先进性,主要是其恰好利用了欧美等国非民主制私营经济如水下流的天性及富得流油的石油、稀土等资源。而民主制才能产生众多先人后己、公而忘私的凡人,是因为全民参与但多数至上的多数就是公,只有迎合多数的公才能赢得自己的私。无私不成公,只有私也成不了公,无公就无法成大功。这就是民主制与自由制的辩证法。智利总统在民主制约下也自然处理好公与私的关系,当他一直坚守矿难现场、指挥营救时,其岳父却奄奄一息,为了几十位自己素不相识的底层工人的生命,却置自己的岳父生命于不顾。当岳父临终时终于与他的最后对话也是:希望你千万不要放弃对矿工的救难!这就是民主制的基石——平等之树盛开的鲜花,多数人的生命重于少数,简明而公正,无论少数或个别是皇亲国戚哪怕是“皇帝”自身,因为人民更是上帝,不仅大于皇帝,而且根本就死不得!
如此制度,使智利今年发生8.8级大地震时尽管国土狭小、拥挤,仍只有几百人遇难,就顺理成章,当然,智利国家在政体上也只是间接民主制,经济上更非民主制,相比之下,以民主制为内核的共产主义社会应能超越西方实行私营雇佣制经济为基础的间接民主制,赢得真正的全面胜利,当然也能更漂亮的营救矿难,并预防矿难,因为民主制里下井的每位工人都是领导:他们的权力至高,他们的生命无价!
(作者:徐达辉)

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