【民主辩证】真正的民主制允许、希望好领导终身任职

把限制领导任期作为民主制的必需,理论上荒谬,实践上有害,逻辑上陷入两难推理,更是自相矛盾:1、民主,就是全民有权直接作主、全面作主,能消除领导人的积极错误,补救领导人的消极怠工,更能督促领导人兢兢业业,发挥超人的才能;2、害处众多,最大的就是使直接民主制被压制或忽略;3、陷入两难推理:如果领导人好,那么,定期换人,就不只是对领导人的浪费,更是对全国全世界人民的耽误;如果领导人变坏,那么,就证明这一间接民主制根本无法保证,领导人一直好,甚至无法保障选择时就好,因而,无论怎样换人,也会是换汤不换药;4、更是自相矛盾:当领导人是好的,而且,经过一二届执政,还会更好时,却必须退位,就等于不是为了人民国家好;当领导人不好时,那就说明是体制存在重大甚至根本缺陷:无法确保选择好人当政,或者无法保证好领导人不变坏,对此,不对体制革新除弊,却只是靠换人,显然,也不是真的为了人民国家好。即,其所谓的好,就是不好,所谓的不好,却是好。依逻辑规则,对自相矛盾,只是予以否定,而不能同时肯定。请欣赏——

第三节 中共当代领导人废除终身制的高风亮节与惋惜(选自【全人类的共同使命与理想】P548—549

苏东剧变后,西方都指责中国共产党人是顽固的霸权分子,认定其坚持社会主义是假,贪图一党一家私权是真,但是从邓小平开始,中共领导人就一个比一个先进的自我结束终身制,推进党内民主制,体现了共产党人的高风亮节,在令人感动的同时,又不免惋惜,因为:

一、终身任职并不违背民主政治

民主制的目的是要人民对大事直接做主,而非是对人的选择,对人的选择也是为了在自己不方便、不愿意直接做主时才委托他人代理,因而对于是何人执政,执政多久,并非人民民主的主抽。只要他人代理时不侵犯人民的权益,始终保持向人民汇报,向人民负责,并保证听从人民的创制权,服从人民的复决权,平时能够积极作为,人民肯定会接受其成就任职。

二、终身任职符合民间宪法——民法关于委托代理的规定

民法才是人民平等自由法,才是人民与政府的基本法,人民与政府的关系无非就是最大的委托代理关系,委托人对代理人是无需要求限制其任期,相反无论事先约定还是实践中都是希望代理人长期无限任职。即使代理人有一些过失,也会得到委托人的原谅。委托人甚至也不要求对代理人一定进行竞选,也货比三家,尽管还得偷偷摸摸,唯恐被候选人得知,而有伤其自尊心。

三、终身任职符合经济要求

真正的经济建设是以全局全民来考量的,就更需要长远性甚至永恒性,因而,领导人的连续甚至无限任职是保障政策与实践的连续性的主观与客观要求;而且,从经济角度考虑,人民也不愿意经常换领导人,每一场竞选难免劳民伤财,也有碍人民自由在世界旅游,而必须在相当一段时间呆在当地考察各候选人,才能做出正确的选择。因而,如果领导人相对较好,特别是具有优良品质,人民是会充分相信并接受的,加之领导人在任期间与人民结下了深厚感情,人民更加不舍其离去。只要好的领导人自己不嫌累,愿意鞠躬尽瘁死而后已,人民当然求之不得,只会感动不已,尽力拥护,甚至生死相依。

四、西方限制任期并非为了民主

既然民主不排斥终身任职,那么,限制任期就不是为了民主,何况,西方政体中议员同样可以连选连任无限。对于西方社会所谓民主制,我们都应理性审视,须知西方社会都是生长于土地私有制这一反动的树根上,其枝叶花朵无论外表如何艳丽,大都是毒花苦果,即使从后果上分析都充满荒谬、矛盾,私营社会的限制任期按前一篇论述主要为了防止行政领导人深得民心,抑制其权威超越大地主富豪,阻止其带领人民审视、动摇土地私有制的祸根。

只有霸权体制排斥选举的终身制及世袭制才违背民主,而西方国家大多还保留国王家族完全依血缘关系的终身制与世袭制,甚至还有许多无需定期竞选的终身制上议员,无论如何自辩这只是象征性的或无实权的职位,都与民主制格格不入,更不平等,显失公允,还成为世界全人类平等融合的障碍。

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