【历史挖潜】中国共产党历史上几大关键胜利在于运用了民主制 

(选自【全人类的共同使命与理想】P549—555)中国共产党不仅是现在才与时俱进,要求实行民主制,在历史上就一直靠民主才取得关键的胜利,即使有的胜利得不够理想,那也只因对民主的运用还远远不够完善。正如我们信仰民主,但不能盲目崇拜当代西方国家的政体一样,我们坚决反对霸权专制,但不能对一党专政简单否定,也不能感情用事,只深究历史事实,只能本着科学、逻辑来判断。其实,中国共产党当年之所以能够打败高举自由、平等、民主旗帜,如日中天的执政党国民党而夺取政权,并非只靠日本侵略消耗国军的天机及前苏联共产国际的支援,关键还在于共产党借助了民主的力量,并不遗余力的批判国民党是假民主、真独裁,同时,又尽量树立自己的民主体制,从而充分争取了民心。民心向背才起了决定性作用,何况,中国是人口最多的国家,而且,当时民主政治理念已深入人心

1、民主制是毛泽东的军事绝招。

传统或正统观念都认为,在军事上只讲、至少是主要讲独裁,才能适应战场上的千变万化,连将在外军令有所不受,又怎能靠开会表决的民主,那不仅会贻误战机,简直还会动摇军心。其实,这是看问题简单化,战场只是军事的激烈点,并非军事的全部,只有在平时主体上打下了坚实的基础,才能一上战场就官兵一心,众志成城,以少胜多。否则,平时没有扎实科学的基础,单靠战场上的侥幸取胜,无异于军事冒险。

毛泽东本为一代文人,也曾经参军,但仅仅数月就因痛感军队的等级压抑而愤然退伍,虽然没有熟读兵书,但才能不落俗套,以致其军事思想就能结合实际而涌现最高明之处:他领导秋收起义后就首创成立士兵委员会的军事民主组织,使士兵在军队基层能享有一定的主人权利,基本实行官兵平等,一改传统或正规军队里等级森严、军官霸道腐败的恶习,大大改善了官兵关系,真正成为兄弟情谊,生死与共,群策群力,上下同心,从而最具战斗力;同时,还在连队建立党支部,使党能直接制约基层军官,也保障士兵委员会的民主权利。相比之下,只是贯彻“军人以服从命令为天职”的国民党军队越正规,反而越差劲,口头互称兄弟,实则等级独裁。其实,现代美军之所以战斗力最高,也在于其军队内部讲究一定的民主、自由。基本的民主、适当的自由只会凝集向心力,焕发斗志,并不会导致无组织、无纪律。

2、遵义会议靠民主制确立毛泽东的领导地位。

在共产国际中因限于敌我交锋或交战激烈,大都是非民主运作,中共在国民党政府的围剿下也只是靠任命、固定任职等来解决领导人的人选,以致一直僵化、教条,导致第五次反围剿的失败而被迫万里长征。终于到了遵义召开会议就采取党内领导层民主选举,才得以使饱受排挤、差点被抛弃在原根据地的毛泽东执掌最高领导权,从而得以转危为安。

3、抗日根据地的三三制政治民主为中共赢得了民心

在政治上,实行民主制的硬件——“三三制”,即,共产党员在政府中只占三分之一的比例,另三分之二由各民主党派、人民代表组成。这种硬性规定,就是比起靠公平竞选而常常导致大党占多数席位的多党民主制,还显得谦虚、诚让。当然,这种反常的民主制尽管获得更多民心,但不合民主制的本义,难以持久,不足为训。

4、在经济上,直接按农民人数来平均分配土地,这显然也是大多数农民的意愿,即使是后来实行集体共同经营,本身也符合民主经济所要求的公有制基础,只不过顽固坚持专权独裁而排斥民主,才导致比古代责任奴隶制还不如的官僚制。而国民党则是保留私营雇佣经济及其私有制盛行,在农村的土改也无非是改成个体经营。同时,共产党成立农会这一全体农民的民主组织,掌握农村政权,相比于国民党尚未开始的村庄民主选举显然又抢先了一步。

5、在精神上,共产党利用民国时代言论自由等社会环境,结合中国当时落后的现实,主要大谈经济平等、自由,并以马克思主义的经济基础决定上层建筑理论推论:有了经济平等自然就有了民主,而且才是真实的民主。这也使许多人将信将疑,至少比国民党在政治上无限期的搞一党专政,在经济上放任私营雇佣制、地主占有制等吸引人心。

如此,民心就较大幅度向中共一边倒,最终倒塌的便是国民党了。

夺取政权后,中共在实践马克思列宁主义与共产国际主张上,也以巧合民意的概率,在几大方面做了准民主制的大事,并有利于转变成经济民主制。

 

 

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