【反思法治】应该建立以“民法”为基本法、取代当代宪法的法律体系

(选自【全人类的共同使命与理想】P805-808)当代以宪法为母法的法律体系已成定论,但是,当我们理性而非盲从的解剖宪法及自然平衡规律,就会大跌眼镜:

一、宪法只是人造的法律上帝,并非自然平衡规律要求

1、从渊源看,人类社会本来没有宪法,从英国近代革命开始产生的宪法性法律只是基于人民反对国王一家霸权,普及人民通过自由竞争而成为地主——众多小国王的需要,从国王一家为主霸权统治演变到地主阶级事实上霸权,即,宪法如同地主阶级与国王的分赃法。故——

2、从内容看,近代宪法就一直强调以土地私有为基础的私有财产神圣不可侵犯的原则。显然,这一原则不可能会得到大多数人民的认可,因为土地私有制下不可能使大多数人民平等。尽管宪法还规定了许多基本人权,但是这些人权都不足以排除土地私有制对人类权利与平等自由的根本剥夺与危害,而且,宪法都始终限制着人民行使直接民主权,因为一旦人民有了公决权,都会动摇宪法这一基础。正因为如此——

3、从程序看,土地私营社会就需要对这一歪曲的反动根基予以特别法——宪法的包装,使之成为最难以修改的法律,并成为其他一切法律的母亲,使其它法律都得维持这一原则,以便地主阶级地位的牢不可破,并可合情合理的不断膨胀。进而,连本性对法律模棱两可的霸权专制国家也如获至宝,一改人治的习惯,也装模作样,其实是情真意切的实行以宪法为母法的法律体系。可见,这一程序就是千方百计排除大多数人民对宪法的改正。

4、正因为宪法的反动性与欺骗性,各国宪法内容就大同小异,同的是根本,异的是枝节,五花八门,并各执一词,使宪法这一本应是最庄严、最理顺、最具公信力(至少是在同样政体国家)的法律却变成最为混乱、冲突的法律。即使在所谓的民主国家,连政府设置上就大相径庭,始终连检察机关的所属、地位、职权等都无法理顺等等,之所以如此,就在于世上只有正义标准才具有唯一性,反动的标准或欺骗的假象则层出不穷,数不胜数,从更坏追求最坏,最坏了还需要更坏,坏到人民都对反动宪法深信不疑,顶礼膜拜,坏到连他们自己包括其学者都云天雾地,根本无法自圆其说。

二、宪法实质上是根本违反民主的法律

当代宪法的本质不是少数服从多数,而是让少数人可以抗拒多数,它保护的只是个人的人权,但排斥着集体的民主权。这也导致美国几百年来许多流弊如枪支泛滥难以通过宪法修正而改变的症结。其实就是私营社会里富有者始终只会是少数人,为了维护少数人的既得利益与大环境,就得颁布违反民主原则的宪法,来尽量限制多数平民、穷人的共同诉求。

三、自然平衡规律才是人类社会的根本法则

既然自然平衡规律支配决定大自然及其人类社会,人类社会的基本法就必须遵循自然平衡规律,惟其如此,才能使人类社会平衡,才能保证大自然的平衡。自然平衡规律及其各种定律、要求都对人类社会基本法有决定性要求:包括大自然统一不可分,就不得实行土地私有制及划分国家;物物及人人平等,就要求人与人权利全面对等,而不能失衡;整体决定个体,就要求地区服从全局;无自相矛盾律要求任何制度设计不能自相矛盾等等。

四、世界统一的民法原理才是当代人民的基本“宪法”

当代宪法不得担任人类社会的保护神,但是当代民法则是基于人民民间最朴素的需要与习惯而来,反而最符合自然平衡规律,实际上才基本上具备顺利人类社会关系的功能与理性。因为,只有民法实质上可算是基本民主法。

1、民事法律关系是平等主体之间的关系,这就确定了全民平等的原则。官员与平民只是职务上的分工,必须以对等的权利来保持双方的始终平衡。

2、民法中关于委托人与代理人的关系规定就是基本完备的政府与人民关系法,就根本无需再故弄玄虚的设计出所谓的总统制、议会制、共和制等等。

3、民法中关于没有法律规定时就依习惯公德的规定就是直接对自然平衡规律的最方便与经济的遵守。

4、民法中关于共同共有权的行使就是共产主义对于土地全民共有及其公有制经济民主化标准的原则。

可见,民法是与全民主制及共产主义基本原则最相适合的法律,加之又是当代世界各国已普遍遵守的法律,更是世界人民共同信仰的基本法,连名称“人民、民主”也亲切准确些。故,宣传并推崇民法为社会基本法,取代宪法就既有必要性,又有可行性。当然,鉴于当代民法远不完善,故,应该依本书理论充实与修缮其相关内容,构成本书附则一的【人类大家庭全民主共产法】

五、人民自觉履行并主动协助政府执法才是普遍现象

健全的公平的法律是社会的基础,自然规律是法律的内在与发展轨道,就能一顺百顺,一改几千年来人民被动守法,内心抗拒,百般违法的状况。

1、由于人民有立法权,法律就可以绝对公平;绝对的标准就是真正超过全体人民半数的一致,而非只是极少数议员代议或参与表决者的半数——实际上的少数人同意。

2、由于是实行专门议会与人民共同立法,就能及时全面,不会造成无法可依,或长期该改不改。

3、当然,自然规律无穷无尽,作为对自然规律总结的法律也得依新的发现、客观变化而改变,但因全体人民都是主人,能够同心协力,就能使法律只是、至少主要是基于自然规律而改变,而非私营经济下法律往往是作为各种利益集团博弈的工具而五花八门,莫衷一是;当然更非霸权专制的法律为恶法,根本反动,只是为了反动。

4、正因为法律是全体人民意志的结晶,即使不同意此法的少数,可能在彼法是多数同意派,而且,法律取决于公意的唯一方式就是充分的自由的讲理辩证。因而,人民对自己意志的法律基本上会自觉履行,没有人愿与自己过不去,只是唯恐他人不遵守法律,故,还出现积极的主动的履行,并自发的监督或帮助他人也认真履行,守法就从需要鼓励的难得的光荣榜样行为变成人人平常的自动的行为,从机械性行为上升为认真并有合理创意的行为,使法律的内涵不断完善,从而使政府行政顺利,就能把主要精力投放在带领大家真正发展民主经济、文化精神事业,而非如间接民主政府对人民不遵守法律或抗议穷于应付,甚至激烈冲突。那时,警察们仍然会担心,但并非担心人民违法犯罪,而是担心——自己失业。别担心,失业会成为大家追求的光荣之举,详见后论。

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