【虚拟的民族】为什么说不应按照所谓不同民族、种族来划分不同的区域及制度,而应人人平等?

(选自P241-242)三、严重滥用、利用民族主义,使全民族成为跨国的打手

如果说爱国主义是专制霸权者划地为牢、军阀割据的精神武器,那么,民族主义的盛行就是其超国界的杀手。

人,作大自然的主人本来不分民族,都是大自然的同等生灵,民族的形成也是古代专制霸权肆虐下的原始产物。古代由于生产力的落后,人们茫然无知,只能紧紧聚集在一起,以抗拒自然界的猛兽、灾难及外界的侵入,人们终年固守一地,很难外移分居,久而久之产生共同的生活、劳动习惯、衣着爱好并根据大家交流的传说及对自然界认识的结论等而形成共同的文化等,这样就形成了某个民族的雏形;而专制霸权政体兴起后,出于统治的需要,为了防范人民的团结及人人互相交流而增加见识、融洽感情,专制霸权者就限制各区域的群体互相往来,并制造所谓的民族来作为不同群体之间的人为隔阂,从而限制民族之间的往来,包括禁止通婚、杂居等,使人群固定化、封闭化,并以特权人物作为族长或地方官,主宰同一民族,以民族的封闭特色来配合专制霸权的等级与封建统治,从而使民族这本是原始自然的人群变得更牢固、鲜明、落后、封闭愚昧。

后来由于因战争逼迫、自然灾难等才使民族迁移、杂居、分化,与当地其它民族同化,不分彼此;到近代由于半民主社会人民迁徙自由的行使、国际经济文化交流互动的增多,人猎异的本性与丰富的求知欲更使人们纷纷主动移居,轮换各地,遍及世界各国,同样的人类已无多少民族的固定区别,何况,人类都出生、成长于同一个地球,具有着基本相同的生理构造与人性,就都是同样的人类,根本不应该以任何其它的外在因素来勉强区分。科学的分类只能是按照生理构造与主要功能来区分物种,大自然的动物中只能、只需要区别不同的种类。连任何动物种类无分天南地北,都不分所谓“民族”,人类本来都是整个大自然的主人岂能仍然划分民族?相反,正因为每个民族各有千秋,各有优劣,更不应相互分离,妄自尊大,而应相交相融,取长补短,既帮助他人,又发展自己。正如世界应走向大同一样,各民族应走向完全的融合,淡化乃至消除民族的原始区别,这才是科学、理性与现实的必然。美国立国仅200年,一直敞开胸怀,接纳世界各族人民,尽管历史上曾有过种族隔离与歧视,但终在民主、平等的理念与规则下各民族一定程度上相融相依了。美国的迅速崛起,就在于各个民族的融合、互补,这才是民族的应有之义与趋势。但是,美国仍然因土地所有制的处处限制及只有间接民主政府的不作为,就使会聚的各民族始终无法充分融合而形成新的统一的美利坚民族或达到无民族区别的境界,只是各民族的联合体。

专制霸权者却继续强化民族情绪,只能使民族人群退化到封闭、孤立、狂妄的原始愚昧中,这正符合霸权统治所希望的愚民、忠诚与对族长、精神领袖的狂热崇拜。由于同一民族又易产生了同一种宗教、信仰,成为了民族认同、约束指导族人的精神架锁,专制霸权者则可利用这一精神武器来号召、指挥分散世界各地的族人,就更具有爱国主义所不具有的跨国家区域的作用与危险。可见,专制霸权者强化民族主义,实质上就是要把民族充当其遍布世界的隐形军队,来打击、制约半民主社会或其它专制霸权国家。

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